1-Definition of consumer-
In a general sense, a consumer is a person who buys certain goods or services for use by paying something. In other words, technical definition According to, the consumer must consist of three elements,
of which the absence of any consumer separate from the class. First, a consumer needs to be a buyer, secondly obtaining a good or service does not include him in the consumer category, e.g., under barter system, the person receiving the goods is not a consumer.
Second, the receipt of the good or service shall be deemed to have been determined by the purchase by the consumer. For example, receiving a good or service by way of a gift or a will without any assessment does not put a person in the category of consumer.
Third, the purchase of goods or services directly by the consumer consumption essential for. For example, a person reselling an article or buying a certain good or service for any commercial purpose, such as reconstruction or recycling, etc., will not classify him as a consumer.
Due to the rapid development of science and technology technology And due to the manufacture of uncomfortable products with high characteristics, there has been widespread skepticism among consumers to choose cheap and good products for their consumption.
People buy the item by relying on modern business techniques and attractive advertisements but it does not live up to their expectations. The problem is further compounded by the absence of organizations to look after the interests of the consumer. In view of this situation, many institutional mechanisms were introduced in different countries to protect the interests of the consumer.
3-Consumer Movement in India-
The tradition of adulteration, black marketing, hoarding, underweight, etc. is very old among the traders of India. Consumer movements in India started in the 1960s. But until the 1970s, this type of movement meant only writing articles in newspapers and holding exhibitions. This movement has gained momentum in the last few years.
The dissatisfaction with vendors and service providers became so great that people were left with no option but to agitate. The government also took care of the consumers after a long struggle. As a result, the government enacted the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) in 1986.
4-Important Question Answer-
Question 1. Who is a producer?
Answer- A producer is a person who produces goods and services.
Question 2. What is the main function of consumer protection councils?
Answer- The main function of consumer protection councils is to protect consumers from exploitation.
Question 3. Mention any two ways by which consumers are exploited in the market.
Answer- (a) By giving a substandard item.
(b) by taking a higher price.
Question 4. Why consumer movement started in India?
Answer- The consumer movement as a ‘social force’ in India was born out of the need to promote and protect the interests of consumers from unethical and unfair business practices.
Question 5. State any one provision of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
Answer- A three-tier judicial system was established at the district, state and national levels for settlement of consumer disputes under COPRA.
Question 6. Give any one example of a consumer’s ‘right to choose’.
Answer- Ram wants to buy toothpaste, the shopkeeper forces him to buy brush with it, but Ram is able to buy only toothpaste of his choice.
Question 7. Give the full form of Copra (U.N.A).
Answer- Consumer Protection Act.
Question 8. What is meant by ‘Consumer Exploitation’?
Answer- When a shopkeeper, while providing goods or services to the consumer, gives a substandard product and charges a price higher than the actual price, it is called consumer exploitation.
Question 9. When is World Consumer Rights Day celebrated?
Answer- World Consumer Rights Day is observed every year on 15 March.
Question 10. What is meant by adulteration?
Answer- When oil, ghee, spices and other items are sold by mixing something to earn profit, then it is called adulteration. This results in monetary loss to the consumer and also bad health.
Read in Hindi: consumer rights