The Himalayas are a mountain system that separates the Indian subcontinent from Central Asia and Tibet. This mountain system mainly consists of three parallel ranges – the Great Himalaya, the Middle Himalaya and the Shivalik, which are spread in the shape of an arc from west to east for a length of about 2400 km. The rise of this arc is towards the south, that is, towards the plain of northern India.
and center towards the plateau of Tibet. Apart from these three main ranges, the fourth and northernmost range is called Para Himalaya or Trans Himalaya which includes Karakoram and Kailash ranges. The Himalayan mountains are spread across the borders of five countries. These countries are- Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and China.
Most of the world’s highest mountain peaks are located in the Himalayas. The Himalayas have many peaks among the world’s 100 highest peaks. Mount Everest, the world’s highest peak, is a peak in the Himalayas. There are more than 100 mountain peaks in the Himalayas which are above 7200 m. Some of the most important peaks of the Himalayas are Sagarmatha Himal, Annapurna, Ganey, Langtang, Manaslu, Ralwaling, Jugal, Gaurishankar, Kumbu, Dhaulagiri and Kanchenjunga.
There are more than 15 thousand glaciers in the Himalayan range which are spread over 12 thousand square kilometers. The 72 km long Siachen Glacier is the second longest glacier in the world. Some of the major rivers of the Himalayas include – Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra and Yangtej.
According to the principles of landscaping, it was formed by the collision of the Indo-Australian plates into the Asian plate. The first rise in the formation of the Himalayas took place 650 lakh years ago and the rise of the middle Himalayas was 450 lakh years ago.
There are also some important religious places in the Himalayas. Among them Haridwar, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gomukh, Dev Prayag, Rishikesh, Kailash, Mansarovar and Amarnath are prominent. It is also mentioned in the Indian scripture Gita.
The Himalayan region is of great importance for being exceptionally rich in diversity and endemism. The Indian Himalayan region has always been the center of scientific research due to natural land resources, medicinal wealth, forests, wildlife, plant species, biodiversity, glaciers and water bodies etc. Not only India but most of the climate of Asia is affected by the ecology of the Himalayas.
Therefore, in the periphery of its scientific research, many subjects like forests, birds, agriculture, land, pastures, rivers, soils, glaciers, carbon absorption capacity etc. remain ready for research. From time to time, scientists and researchers from different institutes of the country and abroad keep researching on the Himalayas on these diverse subjects.
Recently two scientists from Princeton University, Princeton, USA, Paul R. Allison and David S. A paper related to the research done on Himalayan birds by scientists Ramnarayan Kalyanmaran and Krishnamurthy Ramesh of Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun in collaboration with Wilcove has been published in the research journal Conservation Biology. It has warned of the danger hovering over some species of Himalayan birds.
Read in Hindi: Economic importance of Himalaya Mountains for India