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era of industrialization

Initial Since the beginning of factories, people consider the beginning of industrialization. But even before the start of industrialization, England had large-scale production for the international market. That period of mass production is called the period of pre-industrialisation.

In those days handcrafts in cities and commercial Guilds were very powerful. Therefore new traders could not get a chance to work in the city. Such traders used to get the produce from the people of the villages and then used to deliver the product to the consumers. At the same time the open fields were dying out and the commons were being fenced. The farmers did not have enough produce to feed the family. So the farmers easily agreed to work for the new traders. Along with working, he was able to concentrate on his farm and his family.

era of industrialization

1-The pace of industrial change

  • The cotton industry and the cotton industry grew rapidly until the 1840s. After that the iron and steel industry boomed from the 1840s to the 1860s. This was the period when railroads were spreading in the colonies. Therefore, by 1873, iron-steel exports from England increased to 770 million pounds. This was twice the export of cotton and cotton.
  • But industrialization did not bring any significant change in employment opportunities. Even by the end of the nineteenth century, only 20% of workers were working in organized industries. Most of the workers were still employed in domestic units.
  • Many changes also took place in the traditional industries. These changes were made possible because of the seemingly simple new discoveries. Examples: food processing, building construction, utensils making, glass, leather industry, furniture, etc.
  • It always takes a long time for new technology to gain a foothold. Initially the machines were not as efficient as their inventors claimed. Repairing the machines also proved costly. That’s why any industrialist used to shy away from investing in new machines.
  • There was no shortage of workers, so the wage rate was also low. Therefore, businessmen and industrialists thought it better to take work from the workers. Therefore, the average worker of the middle of the nineteenth century was a traditional artisan, not a machine wielder. Hand made things were considered sophisticated and hence they were in high demand.
  • But the situation was somewhat different in nineteenth-century America. Due to shortage of labor there, mechanization was the only way left.

2-Starting of factories

Factories in England first began to be built in the 1730s, and by the end of the eighteenth century factories began to appear all over England. The extent to which the level of production increased can be gauged from the fact that the import of cotton increased from £25 million in 1760 to £2.29 million in 1787.

industrialization

Advantages from factories: The opening of factories brought many benefits. This increased the efficiency of each stage of production. With the help of new machines the quantity of production per worker increased and the quality of the product also increased. Firstly the effect of industrialization was mainly in the textile industry. It became easier to supervise and employ workers within the factory walls.

3-Pre-industrialization

The period before industrialization in Europe is called the period of pre-industrialisation. In other words, the period before the establishment of the first factories in Europe is called the period of pre-industrialisation. During this period goods were made in the villages which were bought by the merchants of the city.

Reasons for traders to pay attention to villages: Trade and craft guilds were very powerful in cities. Such organizations exercised control over competition and prices. They also prevented newcomers from starting work in the market. Therefore, it was difficult for any merchant to start a new business in the city. That’s why they preferred to face the villages.

era of industrialization

4- Characteristics of pre-industrialization in Britain:

The merchants of the city used to give money to the farmers of the villages. He encouraged farmers to produce products for the international market.

The land in the villages was getting scarce. The population was increasing, which was not met by small pieces of land. So the farmers were looking for additional means of income.

During pre-industrialisation, a network of exchanges was spread which was controlled by the merchants. The goods were produced by farmers who worked in their fields instead of working in factories. The final product passed through multiple hands to reach the London markets. These products were then shipped from London to international markets.

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