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How many types of vernier calipers are there? When and how are they used?

Types of vernier calliper

(1.) Depth Gauge Vernier Caliper

This caliper has a depth bar attached to the carrier at the rear of the beam. The depth bar is mounted in a rectangular slot at the rear of the beam and moves back and forth on the scale. Through this type of caliper, external, internal measurement and depth measurement can be taken, for this reason it is also called universal caliper. (Types of Vernier Caliper)

(2.)Flat Edge Vernier Caliper

The measuring surface in this caliper is flat, hence it is called flat edge vernier caliper. The outer surface of their jaw is convex. Both external and internal measurements (length, width, thickness, diameter etc.) can be taken by them. (Types of Vernier Caliper)

(3.)Knife Edge Vernier Caliper

The measuring surface of this caliper is similar to the edge of a knife. This caliper is used occasionally. Its measuring surface is very sensitive, due to which it wears out quickly.
This caliper is used to find the gap between two holes.

(4.)Flat and Knife Edge Vernier Caliper

The jaws of this vernier caliper have a knife edge on one side and a flat surface on the other. Through this, internal and external measurements can be taken.

(5.)Dial Vernier Caliper

This caliper works on the principle of rack and pinion. A precision rake is mounted on its main scale and the dial gauge or pinion mashes with this rake. And the movable jaw is driven by the thumb roll.
To take measurements with a simple vernier caliper, one has to read the vernier scale and multiply it by the least count. There is a possibility of error in this. In place of vernier scale in dial caliper, dial gauge is installed which is divided into 100 parts. And the needle at its center rotates 1000 divisions when it moves one mm. If this needle moves one division, the caliper moves 0.01 mm. Hence the least count of this caliper is 0.01 mm.


First of all, by joining both its jaws, check whether the needle of the dial of the dial gauge meets at the zero of the dial or not. Then if its needle is not found, by rotating the dial, join the needle to the zero of the dial. After this, by opening the jaws, hold the job and take the readings of the main scale and dial and add it.

More Information:- About combination set

(6.)Digital Vernier Caliper

This dial is capable of giving readings more easily than gauge calipers. In this, instead of the vernier scale, there is a screen.
As we open the vernier calliper, the distance between the calipers is displayed on the screen. and it represents the distance in mm to two decimal places; Like- 20.09 mm or 13.76 mm etc.

(7.)Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper

It is used to check the structure of the teeth of the spur gear. It is a composite of two calipers. It has a depth bar on which the measurements are marked in both the British and metric systems.
Mainly two measurements are taken by this, by this it can test up to 0.02 mm metric system and precision up to 0.001″.

  • gear cordal edamame
  • gear cordal thickness

If the diameter pitch and number of teeth of a gear is known, then by the following formulas its chordal edandum and chordal thickness can be found and check and measure by vernier gear tooth caliper. can be done.
Chordal edamame = pitch diameter/2 (1-cos 90°/N)+ edandum
Here pitch diameter = number of teeth / diameter pitch
and edamame = 1/diameter pitch
Chordal thickness = PD sin 90°/N
First, the upper scale of the caliper is set equal to the chordal adandum, so that both the jaws of the caliper touch the pitch circle. This The thickness of the teeth is measured on the pitch circle. Apart from this, the pitch and the size of the hub are also measured from them. (Types of Vernier Caliper)


  1. Vernier caliper is a microscopic instrument, it should be kept with care. And it should be protected from falling down or being hurt by other hand tools.
  2. This tool should be kept separate from the cutting tool.
  3. Do not put much pressure on it while measuring.
  4. Zero error should be checked before measuring.
  5. Do not apply excessive force while using the fine adjusting screw.
  6. There should be minimal rubbing on its jaw job, because excessive rubbing can wear out quickly.
  7. It should never be measured on a moving machine on a moving job.
  8. Vernier Caliper should be selected according to the job.

More Information:- About combination set

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