1-What is a cyclone
Cyclone is the name of the rotating air mass. Cyclones have two distinctions based on their region of origin: tropical cyclones or circular cyclones, and extratropical cyclones or temperate cyclones or tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones – These are windstorms or storms, which are intense in the tropics and moderate elsewhere. It’s called a cyclone.
2-What are the types of cyclones?
There are many types of cyclones. They are named on the basis of their strength and texture. These are especially called hurricanes or cyclones. Hurricanes rotate mostly clockwise and form in the Northern Hemisphere. That’s why they are also called tropical cyclones.
3-Why do cyclones come?
There is air in the Earth’s atmosphere. There is air over the sea just like on land. Air always flows from high pressure to low pressure area. When the air heats up, it becomes lighter and rises.
When sea water is heated, the air above it also heats up and rises. An area of low pressure starts forming at this place. The cold air around it starts moving in this direction to fill this low pressure area.
But the earth keeps rotating on its axis like a top. Because of this, this wind does not come in a straight direction and starts rotating and moves towards that place while circling. It is called cyclone.
4-This is how cyclones are formed,
A sea storm is called a cyclone. relatively warm near the equator Sea They are considered to be the origin of cyclones. In this, the air over the ocean is heated by taking heat from the sun and rises rapidly.
On its back side it forms a low pressure area ie low pressure region. In this process, it keeps on taking moisture from the air. Due to this thick clouds are formed and strong winds blow.
5-The name is given on the basis of texture
There are many types of cyclones. They are named on the basis of their strength and texture. These are especially called hurricanes or cyclones. Hurricanes mostly rotate clockwise and form in the Northern Hemisphere. That’s why they are also called tropical cyclones.
6-The world’s five big cyclones
These are the five cyclones of the world that have caused huge destruction
1. Bhola Cyclone, East Pakistan (1970): Started on 8 November 1970 from the Bay of Bengal. On 12th November, East Pakistan which reached Bangladesh wreaked havoc. The number of people who died and affected due to this is said to be in lakhs.
2. Hooghly River Cyclonic Storm (1737): This cyclone caused havoc in Calcutta and Bangladesh. It is said that around three lakh people died. About 20,000 ships were wrecked. It is counted among the most dangerous cyclones in history.
3.Hapong Typhoon Cyclonic Storm (1881): About 3 lakh people died due to this cyclone in Vietnam.
4. Coringa Cyclonic Storm (1839): The cyclonic storm that hit Coringa in Andhra Pradesh in 1839 ruined the lives of about 3 lakh people. In this, about 25 thousand ships were also destroyed.
5. Bakerganj Cyclonic Storm (1876): The death toll in this cyclone was close to 2 lakh. After the destruction, many also suffered from hunger.
7-categories of cyclones
Cyclones are classified on the basis of wind speed and damage.
grade 1 hurricane: Wind speed between 90 and 125 kilometers per hour, some noticeable damage to houses and trees.
grade 2: Wind speed between 125 and 164 kilometers per hour, causing damage to homes and extreme damage to crops and trees.
grade 3: Wind speeds between 165 and 224 kilometers per hour, causing structural damage to homes, extensive damage to crops and destruction of tall trees, tall vehicles and buildings.
grade 4: Wind speed between 225 and 279 kilometers per hour, power failure and great damage to cities and villages.
Category 5: Wind speed more than 280 km per hour, extensive damage
8-worst affected areas in india
Last year the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) published the results of a study conducted on 96 districts of the country. Of these, about 72 are coastal districts while the rest are located close to the coast.
According to the IMD, 12 districts of the country are most affected by the cyclone. These districts are classified as “highly prone” and all 12 are in the eastern coastal belt.
These include Yanam districts in Puducherry, East Godavari, Krishna, Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Medinipur, Kolkata, and Balasore, Bhadrak, Jagatsingpur and Kendrapara districts of Kendrapara district in North and South 24 Parganas of West Bengal. Apart from this, 41 districts have been classified as “highly prone”. 30 districts are “moderately prone” and the remaining 13 are “less prone”.
Read in Hindi: hurricane