1-India The major geomorphological divisions of :
1- Himalaya Mountains
2-Climate of India-
Quite regional in India’s climate Diversity And on the distribution of climatic elements, the location on the Tropic of Cancer of India and the clear influence of the landforms here is visible. In this, the location of the Himalayan Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau to its north, the Thar Desert and India’s location at the northern tip of the Indian Ocean are important.
The Himalayan ranges and the Hindukush together protect the regions of India and Pakistan from cold katabatic winds coming from the north. This is the reason that the tropical climate extends to the north of the Tropic of Cancer in these regions. The Thar desert heats up in summer to form a low pressure center which attracts southwest monsoon winds.
And due to which it rains all over India. Following Köppen’s classification, six climatic regions are shown in India. But here it must be kept in mind that these regions are also generalisations.
And the effects of relief at small and local levels can create vastly different local climates. The Indian climate has four seasons in the year: winter, summer, rainy and autumn. There is also considerable variation in the distribution of temperature. In the coastal areas, the temperature remains constant throughout the year, but in the northern plains and the Thar desert, the annual temperature range is much larger.
Rainfall is highest on the western coast of the Western Ghats and in the hills of the Northeast. Mausinram in the northeast is the place with the highest annual rainfall in the world. The amount of rainfall gradually decreases from east to west and very little rainfall is recorded in the desert part of Thar.
There is a clear effect of climate on the Indian environment and its soil, vegetation and human life. Recently, the discussion of the effects of global warming and current climate change has also become important. Weather and Climate The day-to-day atmospheric condition of a place is called weather and the long-term average of the weather itself is called climate.
In other words, weather refers to the short-term atmospheric condition and climate refers to the long-term atmospheric condition. The elements of both weather and climate are the same, such as temperature, air pressure, humidity etc. Changes in weather happen over a short period of time and changes in climate happen over a long period of time. ,
2-Deep Group of India-
There are a total of 247 islands in India, out of which 204 islands are located in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea islands by coral reefs and Bay of Bengal islands having terrestrial features forming tertiary mountains.
3- Economic importance of Himalayan Mountains for India-
Himalayan ranges are important for India from the following point of view –
1. Strategic Importance – The Himalayas as a physical barrier provide a natural boundary between India and China.
2. Climatic Significance – In summer, the Himalayas bring substantial rainfall to the country by blocking the south-westerly water vapor-laden monsoon winds. Again in winter, it keeps the country relatively warm by blocking the cold winds of Siberia. This is the reason that although most of the country is located north of the Tropic of Cancer, that is, in the temperate zone, but this climate is sub-tropical or tropical.
3. Economic importance – Himalaya is economically important in the following forms –
(i). Conical forests and production of industrial soft wood from them.
(ii). There are extensive grassy areas like Marg in Jammu and Kashmir and Bugyal and Payal in the Himalayas of Uttar Pradesh for grazing.
(iii) Recovery of various minerals, such as limestone, slate, salt-rock and coal.
(iv) Availability of sloping land for tea gardens and orchards. Production of crops like wheat, potato and maize on terraced fields in summer.
(v) Rivers of fresh water for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes, which are glacial-filled and flow continuously.
(vi) A deposit of fertile alluvial soil in the Gangetic plain.
(vii) Location of various hill tourist places like Srinagar, Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital, Almora and various religious centers like Badrinath, Kedarnath etc.
(viii) hydroelectric projects; E.g. Bhakra-Nangal, Parvati and Pong (Himachal Pradesh), Dulhasti and Kishanganga (Jammu-Kashmir) Tehri Hydroelectric Project (Uttaranchal Pradesh) etc.
(ix) Procurement of different types of herbs.
Read in Hindi: Major geomorphological divisions of India-