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Mineral and Energy Resources

Minerals: the substance Natural Available in form, and which have a definite internal structure, it is called a mineral.

1-Types of Minerals

There are three types of minerals; Metallic, non-metallic and energy minerals.

Metallic Minerals:

  1. ferrous metal: Iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, etc.
  2. Non-ferrous metal: copper, lead, tin, bauxite, etc.

Precious Minerals: gold Silver, platinume.t.c.

Non-metallic Minerals: Asbestos, salts, potash, sulphur, granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, etc.

Energy Minerals: Coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Mineral and Energy Resources

2-Mineral Reserves:

In igneous and metamorphic rocks: In these types of rocks, small deposits of minerals are found in the form of veins, and large deposits are found in the form of layers. Minerals are formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks when they are in molten or gaseous state. Minerals in the molten or gaseous state reach the upper surface of the land through cracks. Example: tin, zinc, lead, etc.

In sedimentary rocks: Minerals in these types of rocks are found in layers. Examples: coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salts and sodium salts, etc.

By decomposition of surface rocks: When the soluble components of rocks are removed by erosion, the mineral remains in the remaining waste. This is how bauxite is formed.

As alluvial deposits: The minerals thus formed are brought by the river flow and deposited. These types of minerals are found at the foot of sandy valleys and at the base of hills. In this way, those minerals are found which are not eroded by water. Example: gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.

In ocean waters: Most of the minerals found in the ocean are so rare that they are of no economic importance. But common salt, magnesium and bromine are extracted from sea water.

Mineral and Energy Resources

3-energy resources

  • The development of energy resources is an indicator of industrial development. There are three major energy resources used commercially in our country-coal, mineral oil or petroleum and hydropower , Apart from this, natural gas, nuclear power, windmill, tidal energy, solar energy, geologic energy etc. also contribute some in the energy supply of the country.

The production and distribution patterns of important energy resources are as follows:


  • It is a solid layered rock composed mainly of hydrocarbons, which is used as a fuel to supply heat and light or both. It is an industrial fuel as well as a source of raw material for various industries.

According to the decreasing quality of carbon, the major types of coal are-

Anthracite (80–95%), vitamins (55–65%), lignite (45–55%), peat (35–45%) and canal.

  • According to the latest estimates (2011) of the Geological Survey of India, India’s coal reserves are 285.87 billion tonnes, of which coking coal is 33.47 billion tonnes and non-coking coal is 252.40 billion tonnes. About 77% of the total coal production in India is used for thermal power generation.
  • coal extraction in india by modern method First attempt was made in Raniganj coalfield of West Bengal , ancient times in the country of total coal in Gondwana rocks 98% share is found, remaining 2% coal in tertiary or tertiary age rocks Get . The most prominent area of ​​Gondwana era rocks is spread over the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha, from where 76% of the total production of coal is obtained.
  • Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are the other major producing states of the Gondwana region. Gondwana era coal mainly bituminous It is of a type, which is used in the country’s iron-steel factories by making coking coal.
  • The river valleys of peninsular India are the major coal mining sites including Damodar river valley, Son-Mahanadi-Brahmani river valley, Wardha-Godavari-Indravati river valley and Koel-Pench-Kanhan River Valley are major. The Raniganj Coalfield of West Bengal is in the Upper Damodar Valley, which is the most important and largest coalfield of the country. of the country from this region 35% coal is obtained. In the state of Jharkhand, best quality bituminous coal is obtained from areas like Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh etc. Tatapani of ChhattisgarhRamkola coal field, Talcher of Odisha Coal field (Brahmani river valley) and Singareni of Andhra Pradesh Coal fields (Krishna-Godavari river valley) are also major coal mining areas.
  • The most important areas of Tertiary age coal are Makum (Asom), Neyveli (Tamil Nadu, famous for lignite coal) and Palna (Rajasthan).
Mineral and Energy Resources

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