1-Ecological balance in nature
for the survival and well-being of living beings Nature There are plenty of resources. But nature also has its own natural control tools. Nature replenishes the used resources, keeps the surplus under control and all this happens naturally through biotic, geochemical cycles.
In this way balance is maintained in nature. in this Food chains and food webs and other natural phenomena have a big hand. In this way the natural balance in nature is regulated. It is also called ecological balance and in today’s context this balance of nature has been disturbed due to human activities.
The Indian subcontinent is the most prone to natural disasters. Floods, droughts, cyclones and earthquakes occur frequently and frequently in India. Natural disasters are compounded by repetition of man-made disasters like fire etc.
The degradation of the environment changes the topography (topo = land). Along with this, the vulnerability to natural disasters also increases. In 1988, only 11.2% of the total land area was flood prone, but by 1998 this area increased to 37%.
The four biggest disasters that India has to face in the recent past are – the 1993 earthquake in Latur district of Maharashtra, the big cyclone of Orissa in 1999, the earthquake of Gujarat in 2001, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in December 2004. There was a tsunami.
In these recurring disasters, there is a lot of loss of life and property. Physical security, especially where insecurity is high, has been put at risk due to these constraints. Natural disasters cannot be prevented.
But the consequences and damage caused by them can be prevented by taking some precautions such as better preparation for more efficient prediction and effective prevention. The above mentioned four
A disasters clearly show that we need proper planning and preparedness to reduce and restore the loss of life and property due to multiple disruptions.
Management of the threat of disasters is actually a development problem. Keeping in view the environmental situation that the country is facing today, the preparation and planning for disaster management has to be prepared. Types of Disasters
There are two types of disasters – natural and man-made disasters. For example- fire, accidents (road, rail or air), industrial accidents or epidemics are some examples of man-made disasters.
Both natural and man-made disasters cause terrible destruction. Loss of human life, means of livelihood, degradation of property and environment are the result of these disasters.
Disasters adversely affect the normal activities of the society and its effects are long term. Examples of natural disasters are earthquakes, cyclones, floods and droughts.
(a) Natural disaster
Some disasters arise on their own in nature where there is no hand or control of man. They are being described below-
The sudden and temporary submergence of any area due to excess water in rivers or water bodies and reservoirs is called flood.
3-Measures to avoid disaster-
1. Have your building structure checked by engineers and if possible strengthen the weak parts.
2. Do not hang geysers, large framed photos, mirrors etc in the house at such places that they can fall and injure someone.
3. Your best response during an earthquake would be to run away, take your cover or stand still. Lie on the ground, hide under a sturdy table or bed, rest your head on your knees, cover your head with your hands. If available, cover your head with a pillow.
If there is no table or bed, etc., nearby to take your oat, then stand in the middle of the door and wait for the earthquake to stop. Stay away from windows, hanging and heavy objects that can fall. Leave the building only when the earthquake stops.
4. If you are out of the house, stay away from electrical wires, exterior walls of buildings, streets, lights and trees. Do not stand near a building as it may collapse. If you are in a moving vehicle, stay away from buildings, walls and trees.
1. Identify high places where you can take shelter during floods.
2. Do not enter flood waters unless absolutely necessary. Find out the depth of the water and find out the firmness of the ground with a stick. Do not go where electrical wires have fallen.
3. Shut off your gas and electricity supply. Switch off electrical appliances.
4. Water borne diseases often spread after floods. Take measures to avoid them.
1. Make sure your house/neighborhood is protected from fire as much as possible. Make sure the fire extinguisher is in working condition. There should be no leaking gas pipe or snapped power lines in the neighborhood. Do not draw more power than allowed. Keep flammable material in a safe place.
If possible, install a smoke detector which gives an indication as soon as the smoke is released. Keep flammable material out of reach of children.
2. Establish a fire escape route in the house/building.
3. Do a safety exercise in your neighborhood.
4. In case of fire, cover your mouth with a damp towel so that the smoke does not affect. Crawling while running as there may be toxic gases, smoke above.
5. Don’t run away if clothes catch on fire. Roll on the ground to put out the fire.
6. Do not enter the building unless declared safe.
7. Cool the burn and take advantage of special first aid.
1. Get the doors and windows repaired, the roof of the house repaired, the dry trees removed and the old dilapidated buildings demolished before the storm season.
2. Keep an emergency kit ready with access to water, food, flashlight, radio, batteries, emergency medicines and tools.
3. If there is a storm, go inside the house or take shelter in special shelters.
4. Close all the windows and doors. Do not leave tins or sharp tools lying on the ground. Do not go out until the danger has passed.
Read in Hindi: Rescue measures during disaster-