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1-Drainage system in India-

  • The flow of water through certain vessels is called ‘runoff’ and the network of these vessels is called ‘drainage system’. the result is.
  • main drainage pattern
  1. Dendritic pattern corresponding to the branches of the tree – the rivers of the northern plain.
  2. Radial pattern – when rivers Mountain Rivers originating from the Amarkantak mountain range flow in all directions.
  3. Trellis drainage pattern – When the main rivers flow parallel to each other and the tributaries meet them at right angles.
  4. Centripetal pattern – when rivers flow from all directions and get immersed in a lake or trough.
  • A river brings its water from a specific area which is called ‘catchment area’.
  • The area covered by a river and its tributaries is called a drainage basin. The boundary separating one drainage basin from another is called a watershed or a watershed watershed.
  • catchment area of ​​big rivers river basin Whereas the area drained by small rivers and streams watershed is called.
  • River basin and watershed are signs of unity. The effect of change in one part of them can be seen in other parts and in the whole area. Therefore, they can be taken as micro, medium and large planning units and sectors.
  • About 77% of the total runoff area is discharged into the Bay of Bengal and 23% into the Arabian Sea.
  • Classification of Indian drainage basin on the basis of size of watershed area.
  1. With a drainage area of ​​more than 20000 sq. km:- 14 river basins included like Ganga, Brahmaputra, Krishna, Tapi Narmada Mahi Pennar Sabarmati Barak.
  2. Medium River Basin:- There is a drainage area of ​​2000 to 20000 square kilometers. There are 44 river basins, such as Kalindi, Periyar, Meghna etc.
  3. Minor River Basin: – Having a drainage area of ​​less than 2000 sq km: – It includes rivers flowing in areas of low rainfall.
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2-Drainage system in India

The control of India’s drainage system is mainly through geographical features. On this basis Indian rivers are divided into two main categories-

1. Himalayan rivers and
2. Peninsular Rivers

The Himalayan and Peninsular rivers are different from each other as they originate from two main geographical regions of India. Most of the Himalayan rivers are perennial rivers. Water remains in them throughout the year, because apart from rain, they also get water from melting snow from high mountains.

Indus and Brahmaputra, the two main rivers of the Himalayas, originate from the northern part of this mountain range. These rivers cut the mountains to form gorges. The Himalayan rivers cover a long route from their place of origin to the sea.

They undergo rapid erosion in the upper parts of their path and carry a large amount of silt and sand with them. In the middle and lower parts, these rivers form the Visarpa, Gokhur Lake and many other depositional figures in their flood plains. They also form fully developed deltas.

Most peninsular rivers are seasonal, as their flow depends on rainfall. During the dry season, the water of big rivers also starts flowing into smaller streams. The peninsular rivers are shorter and shallower in length than the Himalayan rivers.

However, some of these originate from the central highlands and flow westwards. Can you recognize two such large rivers? Most of the rivers of peninsular India originate from the Western Ghats and flow towards the Bay of Bengal.

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3-Rivers of Himalayas

Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra are the major rivers originating from the Himalayas. These rivers are long and many important and big tributaries come and join them. A river and its tributaries are called river systems.

4-Indus river system

The Indus River has its origin in Tibet near Lake Mansarovar. Flowing westwards, this river enters India through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. In this part it forms a very beautiful scenic gorge. In this region, many tributaries like Jaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza join this river.

The Indus river flows through Balochistan and Gilgit and emerges out of the mountainous region at Attock. The Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join together in the Indus river near Mithankot in Pakistan. After this this river flows towards the south and finally it joins the Arabian Sea towards the east from Karachi.

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The slope of the Indus river plain is very slow. A little more than a third of the Indus basin is located in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal and Punjab of India and the rest in Pakistan. 2,900 km The Long Indus River is one of the longest rivers in the world.

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