1-Agriculture sector challenges and problems,
In the past, India’s strategy related to the agriculture sector has mainly focused on increasing agricultural production and ensuring food security, which has never focused on increasing the income of farmers. Gone,
During the last fifty years since the adoption of the Green Revolution, India’s food production has increased by 3.7 times while the population has increased by 2.55 times, but the statistics of farmers’ income growth are still disappointing.
It is to be known that the central government has set a target of doubling the income of farmers by the year 2022, which is an important step in this direction, but this goal is considered to be quite challenging.
constantly growing Demographic pressures, disguised employment in agriculture and conversion of agricultural land for alternative uses have seen a significant reduction in average land holding. As per the data, the average land holding was 2.28 hectares in the year 1970-71 which decreased to 1.82 hectares in the year 1980-81 and 1.50 hectares in the year 1995-96.
Seed is an important and fundamental factor for achieving high crop yields and continuous increase in agricultural production. As important as it is important to produce good quality seeds, it is equally important to distribute those seeds, but unfortunately most of the farmers of the country do not reach high quality seeds.
India’s agricultural sector is largely dependent on the monsoon, with crores of farmer families praying for rain every year. Due to excessive dependence on nature, sometimes farmers also have to face losses, if there is excessive rain, the crops are damaged and if there is less rain then the crops are also damaged. Apart from this, climate change has also emerged as a major problem in the context of agriculture and has also played a role in changing their weather patterns.
Even after 7 decades of independence, the agricultural marketing system in the rural areas of India is in critical condition. In the absence of proper marketing facilities, farmers have to depend on local traders and middlemen to sell their farm produce, so that they get the right price for the crop.
2-Current status of agriculture in India,
- According to the recently released Economic Survey 2019-20, a large part of the Indian population is more directly and indirectly dependent on agriculture sector than other sectors for employment opportunities.
- According to the data, the share of agriculture and allied sectors in the Gross Value Added (GVA) at current prices in the country has declined from 18.2 percent in the year 2014-15 to 16.5 percent in the year 2019-20, which is a natural result of the development process.
- It should be noted that low level of mechanization in agriculture leads to decrease in agricultural productivity. According to the Economic Survey 2019-20, the mechanization of agriculture in India is 40 percent, which is much less than 75 percent in Brazil and 95 percent in America. Apart from this, inequality also exists in the regional distribution of agricultural credit in India.
- Livestock is another important source of income for millions of rural households in the country. Its role is important in achieving the goal of doubling farmers’ income. The livestock sector has been growing at an average annual growth rate of 7.9 percent during the last 5 years.
- India is in the leading position in the global trade of agricultural products, but India’s contribution to the world agricultural trade is only 2.15 percent. The main partners of Indian agricultural exports include the US, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Nepal and Bangladesh.
- It is noteworthy that since the beginning of economic reforms in the year 1991, India has been maintaining the export of agricultural products continuously.
Read in Hindi: Some important problems of Indian agriculture-