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What is a semiconductor? What is a semiconductor in hindi

Hello friends, in this article we will know what is a semiconductor? How many types are there? And learn about many facts related to it.

Semiconductor

Semiconductor they Substance Those whose conductivity is between the conductors and the insulators. Silicon and germanium are very important semiconductors and both have 4 valencies i.e. 4 electrons in their outer shell.


Having valency electrons, they live in such an energy band. In which some conditions are empty or filled. Between the filled band and the unoccupied band above it is the forbidden energy gap ‘delta E’.
Very few electrons remain in the conduction band at normal temperature. Because the current is proportional to the number of moving electrons. Therefore, the value of current is low, that is, the resistance of the material is high.

An electron can acquire enough energy to leave the valence band and move to the conduction band.

When an energy band is completely filled, its electrons do not participate in the conduction because there is no empty energy level in which they can receive energy from an electric field. Therefore, the conductivity of a semiconductor is zero at absolute zero temperature.

Classification of Semiconductor

There are two types of semiconductors –


  1. Intrinsic Semiconductor
  2. Extrinsic Semiconductor

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Those semiconductors which are found in pure form in nature, i.e. in which no impurities are added, are called intrinsic semiconductors. Like – germanium, silicon etc.


Extrinsic Semiconductor

To increase the conductivity of a semiconductor, impurity is added to it. This action is called doping. And the material obtained after doping is called extrinsic semiconductor.

The acceptor material accepts electrons from the valence band of silicon. Because it has only three valency electrons. Examples of donor impurity – Boron, Indium, Gallium and Aluminium. At normal temperature, electrons from the valency band of silicon move into the orbit of boron (or indium, etc.).


P-Type Semiconductor



P type extrinsic semiconductor

Since at normal temperature there is a high probability of having electrons with the proper energy to cross the energy gap, there are also a large number of holes available. When an electric field is applied to the material, the hole current is very high and the material becomes a good conductor. It is called P type semiconductor. The driver in this is mainly due to the speed of the holes.


N-Type Semiconductor



N type extrinsic semiconductor

When a donor impurity with valency 5 is added to silicon, it gives electrons to the conduction band of silicon. Examples of donor substances are arsenic, phosphorus, antimony and bismuth.
When an electric field is applied to this material, the current is mainly due to electrons. It is called N-type semiconductor.



Properties of Semiconductors


  1. The resistivity of semiconductors is higher than that of conductors but less than that of insulators.
  2. Their resistance temperature coefficient is negative.
  3. When an impurity (arsenic or gallium) is added to pure semiconductors, their conductivity is greatly improved.

What is a semiconductor?

Semiconductors are those materials whose conductivity is between that of the conductors and the insulators. Silicon and germanium are very important semiconductors and both have 4 valencies i.e. 4 electrons in their outer shell.

How many types of semiconductors are there?

There are two types of semi-circles which are as follows –
intrinsic semiconductor
extrinsic semiconductor


Read More: What is a Digital Voltmeter? What is Digital voltmeter in hindi

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