Hello friends, in this article we will know what is distribution system? And we will also know that how is the distribution system? And learn about many facts related to it.
distribution system | distribution system
the part of an electrical system that is intended for local use electric power The distribution system is known as the distribution system. In general, the distribution system is the electrical system between the transmission system and the sub-station fed by consumer meters. It generally consists of feeder, distributor and service main. Figure 28.1 shows a single line diagram of a typical low stress distribution system. (o Feeder. A feeder is a conductor that connects the sub-station (or localized generating station) to the area to be distributed.
Normally, no tapping is taken from the feeder to the power so that the current remains the same throughout. The main consideration in the design of a feeder is the current carrying capacity. (ii) Distributor. A distributor is the conductor from which tapping is taken for supply to the consumers. In Fig. 28.1, AC, BC, CD and DA are distributor The current through a distributor is not constant because while designing the distributor, tapping is taken at various places along its length.
Classification of Distribution Systems
A distribution system can be classified according to the following: According to the nature of the stream, the distribution system can be classified as follows.
- AC distribution system
- DC. distribution system
Nowadays, A.C. The system is universally adopted for the distribution of electrical power as it is simpler and more economical than the direct current method.
According to the type of construction, distribution systems can be classified as follows.
- underground system
- overhead system
Overhead systems are generally employed for distribution as it is 5 to 10 times cheaper than the equivalent underground system. In general, underground systems are used in places where overhead construction is impractical or prohibited by local laws.
According to the scheme of connection, distribution systems can be classified as follows.
- radial system
- ring main system
- inter-connected system
Each scheme has its advantages and disadvantages and these are discussed in section 10.
AC distribution system | AC Distribution System
Nowadays, electrical energy is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. An important reason for the widespread use of alternating current over direct current is that the alternating voltage can be easily converted into magnitude by means of a transformer. Transformers have made it possible to transmit AC.
Power on high voltage and use it at a safe capacity. The higher transmission and distribution voltages greatly reduce the current and resultant line losses in the conductors. There is no fixed line between transmission and distribution in terms of voltage or bulk capacity.
However, in general, A.C. The distribution system is the electrical system between the transmission system and the step-down substation fed by consumers’ meters.
AC distribution system is classified into two parts.
- primary distribution system
- secondary distribution system
Primary Distribution System | primary distribution system
This AC that part of. Distribution system that operates at a voltage slightly higher than normal usage and handles larger blocks of electrical energy than the average low-voltage consumer uses.
The voltage used for primary distribution depends on the amount of power to be transmitted and the distance to the sub-station required to be supplied. The most commonly used primary distribution voltages are 11KV, 66KV and 33KV. For economic reasons the primary distribution is done by a 3-phase, 3-wire system. Figure 28.2 shows a typical primary distribution system.
The electricity from the generating station is transmitted at high voltage to the sub-stations located in or near the city. The voltage at this sub-station is reduced to 11 KV with the help of step down transformer. At this voltage power is supplied to various sub-stations for distribution or to large consumers. This forms the high voltage distribution or primary distribution.
Secondary Distribution System | Secondary distribution system
This AC that part of. Distribution system which includes the range of voltage at which the end consumer uses the electrical energy given to him. The secondary distribution employs a 400/230 V, 3-phase, 4-wire system.
Figure 28.3 shows a typical secondary distribution system.
The primary distribution circuit distributes power to various sub-stations, called distribution sub-stations. These sub-stations are located near consumer areas and have step-down transformers.
At each distribution sub-station, the voltage is stepped down to 400 V and power is distributed by 3-phase, 4-wire AC. system. The voltage between any two phases is 400 V and between either phase and neutral is 230 V. Single-phase household loads are connected between either phase and neutral, while 3-phase, 400 V motor loads are connected in 3-phase lines.
DC. distribution system | DC Distribution System
It is a common knowledge that electrical power is generated, transmitted and distributed almost exclusively in the form of AC. However, for some applications, D.C. Supply Example, D.C. For electro-chemical work and for congested areas where storage battery stores are necessary.
The supply is required for the operation of variable speed machinery (ie, DC motors). For this AC The power is converted into DC. Electricity at the sub-station by using converting machinery such as mercury arc rectifiers, rotary converters and motor-generator sets. DC. For distribution the supply may be received from the sub-station in the form of (i) 2-wire or (ii) 3-wire.
2 wire DC distribution system | 2- wire DC distribution system
As the name suggests, this system of distribution consists of two wires. One is the outgoing or positive wire and the other is the return or negative wire. Loads like lamps, motors etc. are connected in parallel between two wires as shown in Fig. 28.4. Due to the low efficiency this system is never used for transmission purposes, but can be employed for the distribution of DC. Power.
3 wire dc distribution system | 3 wire DC distribution system
It consists of two outer and one middle or neutral wire which is placed at the sub-station. As shown in Figure 28.5, the voltage between the outer and the neutral wire is twice as high.
The main advantage of this system is that it provides two voltages at the terminals of the consumers, i.e. V between any external and neutral and 2V between external. Loads requiring high voltage (eg, motors) are connected externally, while lamps and heating circuits requiring low voltage are connected between external and neutral.
Also read –
- What is a Galvanometer? , Types of Galvanometer? , Applications of Galvanometer?
- What are the Different Methods of Different Power Transmission? (What are the different methods of different power transmission)
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