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What is sand? Types of sand (File Tool)

“The process of removing a substance in powder form by rubbing a rough surface tool from the surface of a workpiece is called sanding and this tool is called sanding”.

Through this, we can remove the waste material in the form of fine particles from the shape of plane surface, curved surface, straight wrinkle, circular or rectangular hole etc.

What material is the sand made of?

File mostly high carbon steel Made by forging. but sometimes tungsten steel It is also used to create a file. Teeth are made after forging in sands and then hardening and tampering are done by heat treatment.

sand main parts of

Main parts of sands
  1. Face- The flat part of the file in which the cutting teeth are made,Face It is called Sometimes this part is made in taper down.
  2. tang- To hold the file in the hand, a wooden or plastic handle is required to be installed on its upper end. To fit the file in the handle, its upper end is made sharp. only this point Tang it is said.
  3. Handle-The part on the tang to catch the sand, handle It is called
  4. heel- Some part between the face and the tang remains flat and without teeth. to this part heel it is said.
  5. tip or point- The lower end of the file is called the tip or point. This end is made triangular but sometimes it is also straight.
  6. Edge- The sides of the sand are called edges. And the teeth are cut on both sides of the flat file. To cut with these teeth, the file has to be operated vertically.
  7. shoulder- To make a tang over the heel, the part that is slanted is called shoulder (Shoulder) says.
  8. Ferrule-In case of crack in the handle, a metal ring is fitted over the handle to avoid accident. only this metal ring Farul it is said.

More Information:- steel rule

sand type

1.By size 2.By size

3. Based on the cutting of the teeth 4. Based on the grade of the teeth

1.Based on Size

The size of the sand is indicated by its length, the length of the file is the distance from the point to the heel. It is available in the market from 10 cm to 45 cm. Sands of length 10 cm to 15 cm are used for fine works, 15 cm to 25 cm for medium works and 20 cm to 45 cm for heavy works.

2. Based on shape

(a)flat sand It is a rectangular cut fiber, it is 2/3 of its length parallel to the heel, and 1/3 part (to the point) it tapers in both width and thickness.

It has single cut or double cut serrated cuts on both the faces and single cut straight serrated on both the edges, this file is available in the market in 15-40 cm, it is used the most in the workshops. It creates a flat surface. {K faces are not flat but there are some raised in the middle, which is called Convexity of File.}

(b) Hand sand This sand is of rectangular cut. Its width is the same throughout its length, but in thickness it is tapered to 1/3 towards the point. One edge has straight single cut serrations, and the other edge is plain or without teeth. This edge is called the Safe Edge. This Safe Edge allows the flat surface of the file to file the jab vertically from side to side and the surface on which the Safe Edge moves is not damaged.

Hand File

(c) Pillar sandy- The size of this sand is similar to hand sand, it is less broad and thicker than it. Its length is found up to 15-25 cm. It is used for filing in slots, such as key-way etc.

Pillar File

(d)mill sand- The width and thickness of this sand remain the same throughout its length. Its edge is in square, round or diamond shape. Single cut teeth are made on these edges. These teeth are used to make half round grooves, mostly single cut teeth are made on its face. Therefore it is used for finishing the surface of the jab on a lathe machine or for draw filing.

Mill File

(e)warding sand- This sand is also similar to a flat file, it is 10-20 cm long. It has very fine teeth on its face. It is used for finishing or for other light works. It is used for making keys, cleaning grooves, etc.

Warding File

(f)triangular sand- The cross-section of this sand is similar to that of a rhombus, hence it is called a triangular file. This file consists of three equal sized rectangular faces, which are usually made of single cut teeth. This file also has 1/3 of the point side in the taper. This file is mainly used for sharpening the teeth of a saw. It is also used to sharpen the corners of square or triangular grooves.

Triangular File

(g) square sand The cross-section of this sand is square, it has four rectangular faces. Double cut teeth are made on each of its faces. The point side 1/3 of the file is made into a taper. It is used for filling thin wrinkles and rectangular or square holes.

Square File

(h) Round sand- The cross section of this sand is circular. The point side of this file is made in taper 1/3 part. The entire part of this file has single cut teeth. This file is used for sanding circular or curved surfaces.

Round File

(I) Semi-round sand The cross-section of this sand is like a semi circle. The point side 1/3 of this file is in taper. This file has single cut serrated on the curved surface and double cut serrated on flat surface. This file is used for sanding both flat and curved surfaces.

Half Round File

(j) Knife-edge sandy, The cross-section of this sand is similar to that of a knife section. One of its sides is pointed. Its angle of cut is 10°. Double cut teeth are made on both its faces. It is used for filling very tight places.

Knife Edge File

(I) Needle sand- This sand is of very fine cross-section. Its point is sharp, its length is 10-20 cm. Its tang is round and is held straight in the hand, that is, the tang acts as a handle. These sands are used for very light works.

Needle File

3.Based on tooth cutting

(a)Single cut sand On the face of this sand, teeth are made in a straight line. They are parallel to each other, and are at 60 degrees from the center line of the face. These sands cut the metal less but the surface is well-finished. They are used for sharpening tools and for sanding hard metals. The inclination of the teeth is such that the sand acts as a filling only when moving forward.

Single Cut File

(b) Double cut sand In this, the lines of a single cut are drawn at 60 degrees from the center line and after that the second cut is inclined from 75 degrees to 80 degrees from the center line, due to the sharp teeth in these sands, it cuts more material faster. But the surface obtained by him is not smooth. This sand is used for rough works.

Double Cut File

(c) Rasp cut sand Like single cut and double cut sand, their teeth are not in straight lines and connected to each other, but on the face, bulges are made by punching, these sands are used to make wood, rubber or horse hooves soft. Used to sand objects.

Rasp Cut File

(d)Circular cut sand In this sand, the teeth are made in circular shape instead of straight on the face and are parallel to each other. This sand is used for sanding soft metals. Very little material is cut through it.

Circular Cut File

(e) Spiral cut sand In this sand, the teeth are made in a spiral shape and starting from the point reaches the heel, these types of teeth are in the round sand.

Spiral Cut File

4.Based on the grade of the teeth

The grade of sand teeth is given by the number of teeth made per cm and file with more teeth per cm is called fine and file with less teeth is called course. On the basis of grades there are following types of sands-

,a) rough sand This file has 8 teeth per cm. This is the thickest tooth file. It cuts most metals. These sands tend to slip on hard surfaces. They are used for sanding soft metals.

,b) Course sandy- The course file has smaller teeth than the rough file. The course file contains 10 teeth per cm. They also remove excess metal by sanding.

(c) Bastard sandThese sands have 12 teeth per cm. This is a medium grade file. It is used in both hard and shaft metals.

(d)Second cut sandy- It has 16 teeth per cm. That is, it is a finer file than a bastard file. This gives a good finishing surface.

,e) Smooth sand- This file has 20-25 teeth per cm. This file removes very little material so it is used for light work. This results in a more refined or finished surface.

,f) Dad Smooth Cay, This file has 28-35 teeth per cm. This file is used to smooth the surface after rough filing. By this the goods are cut very less. It is used for fine finishing.

(g) Super Dad Smooth Reti- This file has 40-65 teeth per cm. This file is small in length. It is used to obtain very precise and refined surfaces.

More Information:- steel rule

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