What is solder?
“It is a soldering filler material in the process used to join metals.”
It is made by mixing tin and lead. In which the melting point of tin is 231.9 °C and that of lead is 375.5 °C.
Solder made by mixing tin and lead in the ratio 63 : 37 is most commonly used, its melting point ranges from 96°C to 255°C.
In addition to tin-lead solder, tin also forms solder with other metals. Such as- tin-antimony, tin-antimony-lead, tin-zinc, tin-silver, tin-lead-silver, cadmium-zinc, cadmium-silver, zinc-aluminum etc.
type of solder
It is of two types-
It consists of alloys of copper, silver, tin, zinc, phosphorous, cadmium, which are used for soldering of heavy metals. Its melting point is higher than that of other solders. And its melting point is more than 450 °C. It is used for soldering large sized pieces of metals like copper, brass, iron etc. or at the joints of thick wires and cables. It is of the following type
It is used as per the requirement of the job. It is prepared by mixing it in three proportions. And they are used for brazing in plumber and sheet metal works.
(a) Copper = 50%, Zinc = 50%
(b) Copper = 67%, Zinc = 33%
(c) Copper = 50%, Zinc = 37%, Tin = 13%
(ii) silver solder
Its melting point is lower than that of spelter solder. And it is used for soldering metal objects like gold, silver, German silver etc. Soldering in metals like gold, silver, zinc etc. is made in the following proportions.
(a) Copper = 33%, Silver = 67%
It is used to stitch in silver items.
(b) Copper = 20%, Silver = 10%, Gold = 70%
It is used for soldering in gold jewellery.
(c) Copper = 20%, Silver = 70%, Zinc = 10%
It is used to stitch in silver jewellery.
(d) Copper = 35%, Zinc = 55%, Nickel = 10%
It is used for soldering in German silver.
It consists of alloys of tin, lead, antimony, copper, cadmium and zinc which are used for soldering on lighter metals. It is used to join thin sheets, small parts and wires.
Tin and lead metals are used in making it. The higher the amount of tin in the solder, the lower its melting point. Its melting point is below 450 °C, but by adding antimony and bismuth its melting point is reduced to 96 °C.
Only an alloy of tin and lead is used as a solder. Their mixture remains different for different metals.
difference between hard and soft solder
|hard solder||soft solder|
|1. This makes a solid joint.||1. It forms a raw joint.|
|2. It is made of copper and zinc.||2. It is made of lead and tin.|
|3. It melts at a higher temperature than soft solder.||3. Its joint is applied by melting it at a very low temperature.|
|4. Borax is used as a flux in its joint.||4. Nausadar is used as a flux in its joint.|
|5. Its use heavy Used to connect objects.||5. It is used to connect light objects.|
|6. Its joint does not open when it is working.||6. Its joint gets heated and opens.|
More Information:- What is metal? and its properties
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