A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the magnet’s most remarkable property – a force that iron, steel, nickel, cobalt attracts other ferromagnetic materials and attracts or repels other magnets.
Who is Magnet?
“A substance which has the property of showing the north-south direction by pulling ferrous and ferrous metals towards itself and hanging in a thread, is called Magnet it is said.
About 2,000 years ago, at a place called Magnesia, a substance was found in the form of a brown stone, which had the property of attracting iron particles and small pieces towards itself. The substance was named magnetite stone after this place. After this its name in simple language Magnet was kept and the properties of attraction present in it Magnetism Name given.
type of magnet
It is of two types which are as follows-
1. What is a natural magnet? (Natural Magnet)
Such a magnet, which originally meets or is received from the earth, is called Natural Magnet it is said. like- Magnet stone or Magnetite stone e.t.c. The shape of this type of magnet is not uniform and their magnetic field intensity is very low.
2. What is an artificial magnet? (Artificial Magnet)
Such magnets, which are made or prepared by magnetizing method, are called Artificial Magnet it is said.
By rubbing a steel or iron rod with a natural magnet stone or by wrapping a coil of insulated copper or aluminum wire over a steel iron rod, passing high value DC through the coil, the steel/iron rod is made an artificial magnet. There are two types of magnets that can be made which are as follows-
(i) What is a permanent magnet? (Permanent Magnet)
If a material having magnetic property such as a steel rod is placed under the influence of a strong magnetic field, then Magnetic Induction Through this it becomes a magnet.
Even when it is removed from the magnetic field, magnetic properties are present in this rod and this rod starts working as a magnet. Thus the steel rod becomes a permanent magnet.
Steel, silicon, steel, nickel, manganese, cobalt and alnico are the best magnetic materials for making permanent magnets.
(ii) What is a temporary magnet called? (Temporary Magnet)
The magnetic materials which, when placed under the influence of a magnetic field, lose their magnetism when they are removed from the magnetic field, are called temporary magnet materials.
to make a temporary magnet Silicon Steel Alloy etc. use. When a soft iron rod is placed in a magnetic field, it acquires magnetic properties due to magnetic induction and the magnetic property in soft iron remains as long as it remains in the magnetic field, that is, as soon as it is removed from the magnetic field, it becomes soft. The magnetic property of iron is lost.
properties of magnets
Its properties are as follows-
- The opposite poles of the same magnet have the same strength.
- similar poles of two magnets repulsion and unequal poles Attracted There are.
- The force between two magnetic poles is equal to the square of the distance between them. inversely proportional it happens.
- If it is hung freely by tying a thread between a natural or artificial magnet, then its one end is always fixed or stopped in the north direction and the other end in the south direction. The end of the magnet which stops in the north direction is called North Pole and the end which stops at the South Pole is called south pole it is said.
- The magnitude of the force between magnetic poles placed at a fixed distance is proportional to the product of the intensity of these poles.
- magnet, iron powder draws it to itself. The strength of the magnetic poles is greatest at the ends and gradually decreases towards the inside of the end and the magnet strength is zero at the center of the poles of the magnet.
molecular theory of magnets
magnetic material fibrous solids There are. The poles in their atoms are permanently arranged in parallel to each other in the form of clusters. These parallel groups are called domains. Each of its fields remains completely magnetized, yet the resultant of the different domains in the paramagnetic material magnetism zero lives.
When a magnetic material comes under the influence of an external magnetic field, its domains begin to organize in the direction of the magnetic field. Thus, when the domains of the magnetic material are arranged in the direction of the external magnetic field, the magnetic material becomes a magnet.
The magnetic properties present in the molecules of a magnetic substance Atoms of electrons present in Orbital Motion And Spin Motion This is called the molecular principle of magnetism.
how to make a magnet
It is made in two ways or methods, which are as follows-
To make a magnet in this way, first a metal piece and a magnet or a piece of magnet are taken. After this, these two are rubbed again and again with each other. Due to which the properties of the magnet start going to the piece of metal and the piece of metal also becomes a Magnet becomes.
2.Electrical Current Method
In making a magnet in this way, when a wire is wrapped around a piece of iron or a rod, an electric current is passed through it. then rod or piece of iron Magnet becomes.
In a magnet made in this way, the properties of the magnet are present as long as the current continues to flow and when the effect of the current ceases, the magnet becomes a simple rod or piece of iron. After this, when electric current flows again, then it becomes a magnet. use of this type of magnet Electric Appliances, Motor, Fan etc. is done.
use of magnets
Its uses are as follows-
- Magnets are used in making compass.
- use of magnets refrigerator door,magnetic stickers,pencil box lid etc. is done.
- Uses of Permanent Magnet Meter, Magnetic Needle, Dynamo, Loudspeaker, Headphone etc. is done.
- Uses of Temporary Magnet Electric Generator, Electric Motor, Electric Bell, Relay, Electrical Appliance, MCB etc. is done.
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Read in Hindi: Who is Magnet? type of magnet